* CPU: Motorola 6809E 0.895 MHz (or 1.79 MHz)
* RAM: 16k, 32k and 64k, depending on models
* ROM: 8k (Color Basic) but later models had 16k (Extended Color Basic)
* Text Modes: max : 16 x 32, min : 16 x 8
* Graphic Modes: Several graphic modes, max : 256 x 192 (with 2 colors)
* Colors: 9
* Sound: 1 voice (6-bit DAC)
* I/O Ports: Tape, RGB, Joystick (2), Monitor, Cartridge, Serial RS232
* Keyboard: Full-stroke 53-keys keyboard + Arrow keys, BREAK, CLEAR, SHIFT (x2)
* OS: OS-9 Level 1
* Built In Language: Tandy (Microsoft) BASIC interpreter
MESS emulates two variants of the Color Computer 2
* coco2 [Tandy Color Computer 2]
* coco2b [Tandy Color Computer 2B]
For both drivers, MESS supports the following devices
- a "cartridge" (cart), for .ccc and .rom files
- a "cassette" (cass), for tapes in .wav and .cas format
- up to four floppy drives, "floppydisk0" (flop0) to "floppydisk3" (flop3), for disk images in one of the following formats: .dsk, .os9, .vdk and .dmk
Also a "snapshot" (dump) feature is available for .pak files and a "quickload" (quik) feature is available for .bin files.
Finally, the "printer" (prin) is emulated as well. Cassettes
MESS supports .cas files. Not all of these work; don't panic.
You can pick the cassette image you wish to run from the FILE MANAGER in the Tab/Options menu. Once you've selected the image, go back into the CoCo2 emulation, and use "scroll lock" to set it back in keyboard emulation mode.
If it's a BASIC program, type
If it's an assembler programs, type
If you include the name of the file (eg. CLOAD "PROG") it will skip any files preceding the one you specified. Snapshots
MESS supports .pak files. Go to file menu pick the .pak. It should automatically start running the game. If it does not run, it isn't supported yet. Cartridges
MESS supports .rom files. Go to file menu and pick the .rom. Reset to CoCo2 and it will start running the game. If it does not run it isn't supported yet. Floppy Disks
MESS supports .dsk files. Basically the same as cassette images, except you insert the image in Floppy Disk#1 from the file manager. Once you return to the coco2 emulation, switch back to keyboard emulation mode by pressing SCROLL LOCK and type
To load a binary file (/BIN), type
(replacing the ":1" in LOADM with the appropriate drive designation ":0" through ":3" )
To load a basic file (/BAS), type
(Thanks to "Axe" for the command summary) Keyboard
These systems require full keyboard emulation to work correctly. At startup, full keyboard emulation mode is enabled by default. Whilst in full keyboard emulation mode, some key associated functionality may be disabled (like the ESC key for EXIT). The keyboard emulation mode is toggled using the "Scroll Lock" key (by default).
Original Keyboard: QWERTY Full-stroke keyboard, 53-keys
1! 2" 3# 4$ 5% 6& 7' 8( 9) 0 :* -= BREAK
Up Q W E R T Y U I O P @ <- ->
Down A S D F G H J K L ;+ ENTER CLEAR
SHIFT Z X C V B N M ,< .> /? SHIFT
SPACEBAR RAM options
Different RAM configurations are possible for these systems in MESS. You can switch between them, changing the -ramsize parameter. At command line, you simply have to add ''-ramsize ram_value'', where //ram_value// can assume one of the following values
History and Trivia
The TRS 80 Color Computer 2 (coco2) replaced the Color Computer "Model 1" in 1983. It has the same characteristics than the Model 1 but has a better keyboard and a more integrated circuitry.
There were several models of the Coco2, some with only 8k ROM (Color Basic) called Standard Color Computer 2, and others with 16k ROM (Extended Color Basic) called the Extended Color Computer 2. Some later models differ also in RAM capacity (16k, 32k or 64k).
It was replaced with the TRS-80 Color Computer 3 in 1986. Tandy Color BASIC versions
(info from Lee Veal): In reality, the 'dialects' of BASIC on all versions of the TRS-80 Color Computer 1s & 2s were written by Microsoft for Tandy. That includes Color BASIC (CB), Extended Color BASIC (ECB) and Disk Extended Color BASIC (DECB). In fact, with very few modifcations, BASIC programs from an IBM-PC or compatible using Microsoft BASIC could run on a CoCo and viceversa. (The way I know that is that I did it. Some were quite complex graphics oriented programs.) Within one-half K of the beginning the Color BASIC ROM address, there's a character string that reads "COLOR BASIC 1.0(C) 1980 TANDYMICROSOFT". When you fire up a CoCo 1 that has only the Color BASIC ROM, you'll see on the screen
COLOR BASIC 1.0
(C) 1980 TANDY
The authors of Tandy's Color BASIC (Microsoft) left their name in the code, but they left it off the opening display. Subsequent levels of CoCo BASIC (Extended CB and Disk Extended CB) had Microsoft prominently displayed in the opening display. Thus, Color BASIC was quite compatible for obvious reasons with the BASIC that Microsoft develped for the PC. Extended and Disk Extended versions of CoCo BASIC were
even more compatible with Microsoft's BASIC for the PC.
On the other hand, the BASIC dialects contained in computers like the Commodore-64, TI-994A, etc were quite incompatible with any version of Microsoft BASIC.
The BASIC developed by Microware (the developers of the OS-9 operating system and originally Tandy's first choice of a BASIC developer), called BASIC09, was NOT compatible with Microsoft BASIC. BASIC09 is and was a powerful language that compiled to intermediate code but it is more akin to Pascal then BASIC.
== CoCo & CoCo 2 Double Speed ==
(info from Gary Clouse): The double speed mode was not really accomplished by changing the clock speed. The Synchronous address multiplexor (SAM) chip by default generated memory refresh cycles for the entire address space. The "double speed poke" disabled the refresh cycle for the upper 32k memory address, where the ROM was mapped. Since the ROM was static, it didn't need this and since BASIC spent most of its time in the rom routines, it would appear to nearly double the speed. The flip side of this was that many I/O functions that relied on timing loops would be unusable, such as saving data to a tape. Also if you were using the upper 32k of ram, the double speed poke would wipe the memory.
(info from old-computers.com)
* CoCo Quest Color Computer Games and More! -- http://www.prowler-pro.com/coco/
* Sock Master's Web Page -- http://www.axess.com/twilight/sock/
* www.coco3.com -- http://www.coco3.com/
* Dragon & Tandy CoCo Resources -- http://www.burgins.com/dragon.html
* CoCo 2 at old-computers.com -- http://old-computers.com/museum/computer.asp?c=508
* Color Computer II Emu by Jeff Vavasour -- http://www.vavasour.ca/jeff/trs80.html#coco2